Cytogenetics University of Sao Paulo
The correct application of selection approaches for superior genotypes is directly dependent of the chromosome behavior during the process of cell division - mitosis and meiosis. Moreover, cytogenetics is the connection between the molecular level (genomics and epigenetics) and phenotypic level (from individual to biosystems). Cytogenetics by itself is the phenotypic expression of the genome organization and its epigenetic indexing. The evolutionary machinary acts directly in the genome organization promoting changes in the structure, behavior and the number of genes, with direct consequences to phenotype and thus, to germplasm manipulation. The cytogenetic knowledge is an important and indispensable tool for General Biology, with direct applications to Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biodiversity conservation, exploration and prospection.
Basic concepts of Cytogenetics applied to plant breeding are presented and their implications to genomics, epigenomics, evolution, systematic, biotechnology and ecology, covering: 1) Introduction to Cytogentics; 2) Introduction to genome organization, chromatin epigenetics and chromosome structure (DNA sequences and chromosomal proteins - histone and non-histone proteins); 3) mitotic behaviour and biotechnology applications; 4) meiotic behavior and applications to plant breeding; 5) Cytological and molecular principles of genetic mapping; 6)Structural and numerical chromosomal alterations, mechanism of origin and consequences; 7) Importance of the chromosomal alterations to evolution and gene mapping into the chromosomes; 8) Recombination mechanisms, meiotic behavior and genetic mapping in polyploid species (cytogenetic principles); 9) variant chromosomal systems from parthenogenesis and apomixis
Seminar presentations and bibliographic review. Theoretical exams. Analysis of practical exercises.
- Introduction to Cytogenetics. General overview of chromosomes behavior during cell cycles - mitosis and meiosis, chromatin strcuture and molecular organization of the chromosomes. Introduction to epigenetic indexing mechanism. - Meiotic behavior. Meiosis and recombination, linkage and crossing-over. Genetic and Cytological Maps. Genetic mapping approaches in plant and animals. Meiotic instabilities and their consequences to fertility. - Alterations in chromosome structure - deficiencies/deletions, duplications, inversions and translocations. Origin, phenotypic effects, meiotic behavior and its genetic consequences. Segmental Genome Duplication (SGD) - Alterations in chromosome numbers - aneuploidy, autopolyploidy and allopolyploidy. Origin and genetic consequences. Importance in the evolution and for breeding. Aneuploidy applied to genetic mapping. - Whole Genome Duplication (WGD) and types of poliploidy. Artificial polyploids. Gene expression and silencing in polyploids. Gene expression and epigentic alterations as consequences of genome duplication. - Diversity in reproductive systems, parthenogenesis and apomixis. Cytogenetics, Evolution and Biotechnology. Study of cases covering the main subjects. Practicals: chromosome analysis in plant and animals. Chiasma and meiotic instability analysis in maize. Chromosomal alterations in plants. Physical mapping of ribosomal genes by Fluorescent Molecular in situ Hybridization. Immunodetection of chromosomal proteins and DNA methylation. Introduction to bioinformatic applied to cytogenetics.
Online Course Requirement
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Email address: http://pt.esalq.usp.br/