Geography of Brazil´s Natural Resources

The concept of natural resources remains vague and loose. Thus, there is a tenuous limit between what is still natural resource and what is already transformed by mankind to some extent. I the same way, a mere classification of renewable and exhaustible resources is insufficient to promote a satisfactory comprehension about this subject. Hence, before analysing natural resources themselves, it is necessary to undertake a conceptual revision that strengthens the accuracy of definitions towards their empirical correspondent objects – Mature the conceptual background about natural resources under a geographical perspective through which social and natural dimensions merge. – Comprehend the complex relationship between natural resources and human development. – Develop analysis skills by building links between conceptual background and Brazil´s natural resources. Faculty of Philosophy, Languages and Human Sciences (FFLCH) São Paulo main campus 1 – The concept of natural resource and its derivations Introduction 1.1 Some complementary issues 1.2 Renewable x exhaustible resources: a false antagonism 1.3 Renewable or Inexhaustible? 1.4 Difference between renewable and naturally recyclable resources: the case of water 1.5 Difference between renewable and reproductive resource Conclusions Activities 2 – The richness of resources in Brazil: natural premises Introduction 2.1 Geographical positioning and climate features 2.2 Tectonic: the architecture of territory and water concentration 2.3 Macro-structures: cratons, sedimentary basins and orogenic belts 2.4 Macro-sculptures: highlands, plains and depressions 2.5 Biodiversity: the result of combination of the landscape components Conclusions Activities 3 – Natural resources and territorial organisation Introduction 3.1 Global scale 3.2 Continental scale: Latin America 3.3 National scale: Egypt 3.4 Regional scale: Amazon 3.5 Local scale: coastal areas 3.6 Other examples 3.7 Territorial configuration beyond natural resources 3.8 The influence of natural conditions over the urbanisation of S_o Paulo State Activities 4 – Energy: an essential knowledge Introduction 4.1 Brief historic of use 4.2 Useful concepts: energy, force, work 4.3 Types of energy and possibilities of conversions 4.4 Potency and efficiency 4.5 Energy losses and rational use Conclusions Our vital virtual energy Activities EMPIRICAL LESSONS 5 _ Non-renewable minerals for energy generation Introduction 5.1 Hydrocarbons – Petrol – Natural gas – Shale gas – Coal 5.2 Uranium Activities 6 – Minerais (non-renewables, renewables and inexhaustibles) for other uses Introduction 6.1 Impacts and restoration 6.2 Raw material for construction – Aggregates, Stones, Sands, Clays, Chalk – Aggregates from rejects (non-naturals) 6.3 Other minerals (non-metallics) – Evaporites: salt and gypsum – Barite 6.4 Soils – Conservation of soils 6.5 Agrochemicals and natural resources 6.6 Ferrous metallic minerals – Iron ore – Other ferrous metallic minerals 6.7 Non-ferrous metallic minerals – Aluminium ore – Copper ore – Other non-ferrous metallic minerals Activities 7 – Renewable and reproductive natural resources: biomass Introduction 7.1 Biomass for food production – Agriculture – Livestock – Aquaculture and mariculture 7.2 Biomass for energy production – Modern biomass – Traditional and other biomasses 7.3 Biomass for other uses – Silviculture – Timber from deforestation – Other biomasses 7.4 Biomass related to environment preservation – Protected areas – Sustainable ways to produce biomass – The milestone of biodiversity and bio-piracy Conclusions Activities 8 – Water resources: a special chapter Introduction 8.1 Definition and essential information – Atmospheric waters – Superficial, fresh and liquid waters – Underground fresh water 8.2 Water uses – Non-energy uses – Energy uses 8.3 Desalination of ocean water 8.4 The Brazilian paradox 8.5 San Peter: wanted alive or dead 8.6 S_o Francisco river transposition 8.7 Perspectives Activities 9 – Natural resources for non-traditional or alternative energy production Introduction 9.1 Sun energy – Transformation of Sun energy into thermo-energy – Transformation of Sun energy into electrical energy 9.2 Wind energy 9.3 Geothermal energy – Transformation of geothermal energy into electricity – Geothermal energy in Brazil 9.4 Alternative hydraulic energy – Tidal energy – Wave energy – Water flow energy 9.5 Hydrogen (H2) Conclusion Activities Luis Antonio Bittar Venturi 42 FLG5144 8 Fieldworks may have alterations due to logistic issues All demanded activities during the course will be assessed. The final mark will be composed by the average marks of: exercises (E), seminars (S), fieldwork repo

Functional Magnetic Resonance as Neuroimaging Technique

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as neuroimaging modality has undergone major advances in recent decades. Several techniques has expanded the application areas of MRI, such as functional imaging, spectroscopy, angiography, among others techniques. The speed of this progress and its multidisciplinary character leads to a superficial overview of the use and understanding of fMRI. Therefore, an extensive discussion of this technique is important to provide a better understanding of the results in the study of biological systems, in particular due to the possibility to study the brain in a completely non-invasive way. The discipline aims to give a detailed view of the methodological aspects and recent applications of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters at Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP) Ribeirão Preto campus 1. Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2. Contrast mechanisms in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 3. BOLD contrast. 4. Temporal and spatial properties of fMRI. 5. fMRI pre-processing. 6. Experimental design in fMRI. 7. Statistical analysis in fMRI. 8. fMRI applications in neuroscience. Carlos Ernesto Garrido Salmon, Renata Ferranti Leoni 25 5915768 4 P = Written Exam and/or S = Seminar